Phonemic Awareness Research


Phonemic Awareness Research

• The two best predictors of early reading success are alphabet recognition and phonemic awareness. (Adams, 1990)

• Phonemic awareness is central in learning to read and spell. (Ehri, 1984)

• The probability of remaining a poor reader at the end of fourth grade, given a child was a poor reader at the end of first grade, was .88....... the probability of remaining an average reader in fourth grade, given an average reading ability in first grade, was .87. (Juel, 1988)

• The lack of phonemic awareness is the most powerful determinant of the likelihood of failure to read. (Adams, 1990)

• Phonemic awareness is the most important core and causal factor in separating normal and disabled readers. (Adams, 1990)

• Phonemic awareness has been shown to be a very powerful predictor of later reading achievement. In fact, it [phonemic awareness] is a better predictor than more global measures such as IQ or general language proficiency. (Griffith and Olson, 1992)

• Phonemic awareness is the most potent predictor of success in learning to read. It is more highly related to reading than tests of general intelligence, reading readiness, and listening comprehension. (Stanovich, 1986, 1994)

• Yes, there really is a difference in brain activation patterns between good and poor readers. We see the difference when people carry out phonologically based tasks. And that tells us that the area of difficulty - the functional disruption - in poor readers relates to phonological analysis. This suggests that we focus on phonological awareness when trying to prevent or remediate the difficulty in poor reading. (Shaywitz, 1999)

• The most comprehensive reading program EXPLICITLY [sic] teaches about the sounds of language. It teaches children that words can be broken up into these smaller units of language, that the letters represent this unit of language - phonics. (Shaywitz, 1999)

• ALL [sic] children can benefit from being taught directly how to break up spoken words into smaller units and how letters represent sounds. (Shaywitz, 1999)

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